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Emon Arduino program code

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Hi, I am learning about programming in Arduino and I am trying to build the energy monitor from https://learn.openenergymonitor.org/electricity-monitoring/ctac/how-to-build-an-arduino-energy-monitor. The code in the library file is shown below. Can anyone explain to me in detail what this code is about? Thanks!

/*
  Emon.cpp - Library for openenergymonitor
  Created by Trystan Lea, April 27 2010
  GNU GPL
  modified to use up to 12 bits ADC resolution (ex. Arduino Due)
  by [email protected] 26.12.2013
  Low Pass filter for offset removal replaces HP filter 1/1/2015 - RW
*/

// Proboscide99 10/08/2016 - Added ADMUX settings for ATmega1284 e 1284P (644 / 644P also, but not tested) in readVcc function

//#include "WProgram.h" un-comment for use on older versions of Arduino IDE
#include "EmonLib.h"

#if defined(ARDUINO) && ARDUINO >= 100
#include "Arduino.h"
#else
#include "WProgram.h"
#endif


//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Sets the pins to be used for voltage and current sensors
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void EnergyMonitor::voltage(unsigned int _inPinV, double _VCAL, double _PHASECAL)
{
  inPinV = _inPinV;
  VCAL = _VCAL;
  PHASECAL = _PHASECAL;
  offsetV = ADC_COUNTS>>1;
}

void EnergyMonitor::current(unsigned int _inPinI, double _ICAL)
{
  inPinI = _inPinI;
  ICAL = _ICAL;
  offsetI = ADC_COUNTS>>1;
}

//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Sets the pins to be used for voltage and current sensors based on emontx pin map
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void EnergyMonitor::voltageTX(double _VCAL, double _PHASECAL)
{
  inPinV = 2;
  VCAL = _VCAL;
  PHASECAL = _PHASECAL;
  offsetV = ADC_COUNTS>>1;
}

void EnergyMonitor::currentTX(unsigned int _channel, double _ICAL)
{
  if (_channel == 1) inPinI = 3;
  if (_channel == 2) inPinI = 0;
  if (_channel == 3) inPinI = 1;
  ICAL = _ICAL;
  offsetI = ADC_COUNTS>>1;
}

//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
// emon_calc procedure
// Calculates realPower,apparentPower,powerFactor,Vrms,Irms,kWh increment
// From a sample window of the mains AC voltage and current.
// The Sample window length is defined by the number of half wavelengths or crossings we choose to measure.
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void EnergyMonitor::calcVI(unsigned int crossings, unsigned int timeout)
{
  #if defined emonTxV3
  int SupplyVoltage=3300;
  #else
  int SupplyVoltage = readVcc();
  #endif

  unsigned int crossCount = 0;                             //Used to measure number of times threshold is crossed.
  unsigned int numberOfSamples = 0;                        //This is now incremented

  //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  // 1) Waits for the waveform to be close to 'zero' (mid-scale adc) part in sin curve.
  //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  boolean st=false;                                  //an indicator to exit the while loop

  unsigned long start = millis();    //millis()-start makes sure it doesnt get stuck in the loop if there is an error.

  while(st==false)                                   //the while loop...
  {
    startV = analogRead(inPinV);                    //using the voltage waveform
    if ((startV < (ADC_COUNTS*0.55)) && (startV > (ADC_COUNTS*0.45))) st=true;  //check its within range
    if ((millis()-start)>timeout) st = true;
  }

  //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  // 2) Main measurement loop
  //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  start = millis();

  while ((crossCount < crossings) && ((millis()-start)<timeout))
  {
    numberOfSamples++;                       //Count number of times looped.
    lastFilteredV = filteredV;               //Used for delay/phase compensation

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // A) Read in raw voltage and current samples
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    sampleV = analogRead(inPinV);                 //Read in raw voltage signal
    sampleI = analogRead(inPinI);                 //Read in raw current signal

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // B) Apply digital low pass filters to extract the 2.5 V or 1.65 V dc offset,
    //     then subtract this - signal is now centred on 0 counts.
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    offsetV = offsetV + ((sampleV-offsetV)/1024);
    filteredV = sampleV - offsetV;
    offsetI = offsetI + ((sampleI-offsetI)/1024);
    filteredI = sampleI - offsetI;

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // C) Root-mean-square method voltage
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    sqV= filteredV * filteredV;                 //1) square voltage values
    sumV += sqV;                                //2) sum

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // D) Root-mean-square method current
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    sqI = filteredI * filteredI;                //1) square current values
    sumI += sqI;                                //2) sum

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // E) Phase calibration
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    phaseShiftedV = lastFilteredV + PHASECAL * (filteredV - lastFilteredV);

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // F) Instantaneous power calc
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    instP = phaseShiftedV * filteredI;          //Instantaneous Power
    sumP +=instP;                               //Sum

    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    // G) Find the number of times the voltage has crossed the initial voltage
    //    - every 2 crosses we will have sampled 1 wavelength
    //    - so this method allows us to sample an integer number of half wavelengths which increases accuracy
    //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    lastVCross = checkVCross;
    if (sampleV > startV) checkVCross = true;
                     else checkVCross = false;
    if (numberOfSamples==1) lastVCross = checkVCross;

    if (lastVCross != checkVCross) crossCount++;
  }

  //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  // 3) Post loop calculations
  //-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  //Calculation of the root of the mean of the voltage and current squared (rms)
  //Calibration coefficients applied.

  double V_RATIO = VCAL *((SupplyVoltage/1000.0) / (ADC_COUNTS));
  Vrms = V_RATIO * sqrt(sumV / numberOfSamples);

  double I_RATIO = ICAL *((SupplyVoltage/1000.0) / (ADC_COUNTS));
  Irms = I_RATIO * sqrt(sumI / numberOfSamples);

  //Calculation power values
  realPower = V_RATIO * I_RATIO * sumP / numberOfSamples;
  apparentPower = Vrms * Irms;
  powerFactor=realPower / apparentPower;

  //Reset accumulators
  sumV = 0;
  sumI = 0;
  sumP = 0;
//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
}

//--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
double EnergyMonitor::calcIrms(unsigned int Number_of_Samples)
{

  #if defined emonTxV3
    int SupplyVoltage=3300;
  #else
    int SupplyVoltage = readVcc();
  #endif


  for (unsigned int n = 0; n < Number_of_Samples; n++)
  {
    sampleI = analogRead(inPinI);

    // Digital low pass filter extracts the 2.5 V or 1.65 V dc offset,
    //  then subtract this - signal is now centered on 0 counts.
    offsetI = (offsetI + (sampleI-offsetI)/1024);
    filteredI = sampleI - offsetI;

    // Root-mean-square method current
    // 1) square current values
    sqI = filteredI * filteredI;
    // 2) sum
    sumI += sqI;
  }

  double I_RATIO = ICAL *((SupplyVoltage/1000.0) / (ADC_COUNTS));
  Irms = I_RATIO * sqrt(sumI / Number_of_Samples);

  //Reset accumulators
  sumI = 0;
  //--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  return Irms;
}

void EnergyMonitor::serialprint()
{
  Serial.print(realPower);
  Serial.print(' ');
  Serial.print(apparentPower);
  Serial.print(' ');
  Serial.print(Vrms);
  Serial.print(' ');
  Serial.print(Irms);
  Serial.print(' ');
  Serial.print(powerFactor);
  Serial.println(' ');
  delay(100);
}

//thanks to http://hacking.majenko.co.uk/making-accurate-adc-readings-on-arduino
//and Jérôme who alerted us to http://provideyourown.com/2012/secret-arduino-voltmeter-measure-battery-voltage/

long EnergyMonitor::readVcc() {
  long result;

  //not used on emonTx V3 - as Vcc is always 3.3V - eliminates bandgap error and need for calibration http://harizanov.com/2013/09/thoughts-on-avr-adc-accuracy/

  #if defined(__AVR_ATmega168__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega328__) || defined (__AVR_ATmega328P__)
  ADMUX = _BV(REFS0) | _BV(MUX3) | _BV(MUX2) | _BV(MUX1);
  #elif defined(__AVR_ATmega644__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega644P__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega1284__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega1284P__)
  ADMUX = _BV(REFS0) | _BV(MUX4) | _BV(MUX3) | _BV(MUX2) | _BV(MUX1);
  #elif defined(__AVR_ATmega32U4__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega1280__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega2560__) || defined(__AVR_AT90USB1286__)
  ADMUX = _BV(REFS0) | _BV(MUX4) | _BV(MUX3) | _BV(MUX2) | _BV(MUX1);
  ADCSRB &= ~_BV(MUX5);   // Without this the function always returns -1 on the ATmega2560 http://openenergymonitor.org/emon/node/2253#comment-11432
  #elif defined (__AVR_ATtiny24__) || defined(__AVR_ATtiny44__) || defined(__AVR_ATtiny84__)
  ADMUX = _BV(MUX5) | _BV(MUX0);
  #elif defined (__AVR_ATtiny25__) || defined(__AVR_ATtiny45__) || defined(__AVR_ATtiny85__)
  ADMUX = _BV(MUX3) | _BV(MUX2);

  #endif


  #if defined(__AVR__)
  delay(2);                                        // Wait for Vref to settle
  ADCSRA |= _BV(ADSC);                             // Convert
  while (bit_is_set(ADCSRA,ADSC));
  result = ADCL;
  result |= ADCH<<8;
  result = READVCC_CALIBRATION_CONST / result;  //1100mV*1024 ADC steps http://openenergymonitor.org/emon/node/1186
  return result;
  #elif defined(__arm__)
  return (3300);                                  //Arduino Due
  #else
  return (3300);                                  //Guess that other un-supported architectures will be running a 3.3V!
  #endif
}

That sketch was originally written for a project documented at https://boredomprojects.net/index.php/projects/home-energy-monitor, the “Arduino Due (ARM CPU at 84 MHz) + emonTx Shield” thread introduces it and discusses it’s inclusion in OpenEnergyMonitor/emonLib.

There are several other threads on the archived forum if you search for “boredomprojects” as well as a few here on this forum too.

@jeff83
Have you looked at the ‘Learn’ section here? In there, there are some mainly theoretical articles that explain the basics of measuring current & voltage, but there are simple but working code examples too.

Yup, I have looked through and understood most general concepts there. However, I am still not sure about some parts of the library code such as sample window length and zero crossings. Thanks.

There are two functions you’re interested in. calcIrms( ) and calcVI( ).

calcIrms( ) depends on the sample rate alone for the sampling period. Ideally, you choose the number of samples so that you have a whole number of cycles covered. Sampling starts anywhere, and ends anywhere. If you have part of a cycle, it introduces an error. We aim for 10 or 12 cycles (200 ms).

calcVI( ), because it always has access to the voltage wave, can look at that and count cycles, so it does. First, it waits in a loop until the sample value is close to the mid-point, i.e. close to the mains zero crossing. Then it drops through into the main loop, reading samples and accumulating totals. When it sees another voltage sample crossing in the opposite direction, it counts a zero crossing. It stops and calculates the average when it’s seen the required number of crossings (2 × the number of cycles). calcVI( ) will start and stop close to (but not actually on) the zero crossing, so any error from including an extra sample will be minimised.
Timeout only comes into action if the voltage fails.

Thanks for the informative reply. May I know roughly how many samples will be chosen?
Can I also ask about the significance of calibration coefficient, filtered and offset values? Thanks!

The sampling rates, measured with a standard emonTx V3.4 (and the emonPi is the same processor) are:
calcIrms( ) - approx 5588 current samples per second.
calcVI( ) - approx 2535 pairs of voltage & current samples per second.
Sampling rate of emonLib
(A search should have found that.)

A calibration coefficient is just that - it adjusts the calibration according to the physical properties of your hardware. That and the others really are explained in Learn. The information is not best organised, but it’s there.